& Journal articles
in Nazi Germany: Holocaust and Genocide Studies - An International Journal',
vol 7, 2000, Nos. l -3, Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual
day they were simply gone": The Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals',
by Rictor Norton (Ed.), Gay News No. 82, 6-19 Nov 1975.
The first published essay on gay victims of the Holocaust in the UK,
in 1975. It was featured in the newspaper 'Gay News' in 1975. A web
version of this essay can be found at http://www.infopt.demon.co.uk/nazi.htm
Tutorial for teachers about gay holocaust studies.
Article about a planned memorial for the gay victims in Berlin.
Underground Life: Memoirs of a Gay Jew in Nazi Berlin (Living Out)'.
Beck, Gad, written with Frank Heibert.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1999.
Men with the Pink Triangle'.
Heger, Heinz. Revised edition.
Boston: Alyson Publishers, 1994.
Pink Triangle: The Nazi War against Homosexuals',
New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1986.
Pierre Seel, Deported Homosexual: A Memory of Nazi Terror',
New York: Basic Books, 1995.
Racial State: Germany 1933-1945'.
Burleigh, Michael and Wolfgang Wippermann,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Holocaust? Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany 1933-45',
Grau, Günter Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1995.
'Homosexuality and Male Bonding in Pre- Nazi Germany:
The Youth Movement, The Gay Movement and Male Bonding Before Hitler's
Rise: Original Transcripts from 'Der Engene', The First Gay Journal
in the World',
Oosterhuis, Harry, Oosterhuis H Phd (Editor), Kennedy, Hubert (Editor)
Park Press, 1998
Documentaries & film media
1989: Directed by Stuart Marshall.
Originally screened in Great Britain in 1989 as part of Channel Four's
lesbian & gay magazine series. Presents the events that led to the
Nazi extermination of lesbians & gay men; the body & nature
worship cult; the deification of same-sex friendship; the growth of
gay bars; & the persecution of sexual radicals. Through archive
film, photographs, & interviews, this documentary shows how the
Nazi's made it their official policy to eliminate all homosexuals.
2000: Directed by: Rob Epstein & Jeffrey Friedman,
Telling Pictures film.
Official website: http://www.tellingpictures.com/
Were Marked with a Big A'
1990: Directed by: Elke Jeanrod and Josef Weishaupt.
Documentary testimony of three homosexual men who survived the Holocaust.
The title of the film refers to a yellow cloth with a large letter 'A',
that initially some victims were forced to wear on their clothes. The
film is in German but with English subtitles.
Website detailing paragraph 175 and its effect on homosexuals during
the Nazi period.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) has produced many
excellent sources on the Nazi persecution of homosexuals. The site features
an online exhibition (the first of its kind) dedicated to the Homosexual
victims & survivors of the Holocaust. It also features extensive
archieves & multimedia testimonies.
USHMM educational brochure on homosexuals as victims of the Nazi regime.
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum online exhibition about Gad
USHMM conference on Nazi persecution of homosexuals, with audio lectures.
USHMM bibliography on Nazi persecution of gays and lesbians.
A website supporting the documentary Paragraph 175, which was influential
in the German governments' issue of an apology to gay victims of the
Holocaust in 2001.
House of the Wannsee Official Memorial and Educational Site. Website
with Holocaust statistics.
Website of the Survivors of the Holocaust Shoah (the Hebrew word meaning
a great darkness that defies explanation) Visual History Foundation,
which has collected and catalogued over 50,000, videotaped testimonies
of Holocaust survivors and witnesses. The Foundation's collection includes
five firsthand audio accounts of gay men and lesbians in various concentration
camps. Although these testimonies are not available in English, they
are accompanied by written details about their persecution.
Annotated bibliography of nonfiction sources in English on the homosexual
rights movement in pre-Nazi Germany and the Nazi persecution of homosexuals.
Website detailing various sources on gay survivors, including the Declaration
of Gay Survivors 50 Years after Their Liberation.
Website set up by the Simon Wiesenthal Center with scholarly narrative
on pre-Nazi and Nazi-era homosexuals and their struggles for equal rights.
Website with breakdown of numbers killed during the Holocaust.
Schwules Museum (Gay Museum) website with extensive visual documentation,
journals, and diaries of homosexual victims of Nazi Germany.
French-language web site, with numerous links, about Nazi persecution
Pink triangle history
Museum press page for journalists about the online exhibition of gay
victims under paragraph 175
ACT-UP gay action group uses the pink triangle inverted as its symbol
Online exhibition of the gay persecution in Vienna: Lost Lives - Nazi
Persecution of Homosexuals in Vienna, 1938-1945, an exhibition originally
displayed as part of Europride 2001 by Homosexuelle Initiative (HOSI)
Wien, is now online.
The Hirschfeld Society's online exhibit on the former Hirschfeld Institute
for Sexual Science in Berlin (1919-1933) is now up and running - in
German, English, and Spanish.
Hirschfeld archive and WLSR website.
Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies University of Minnesota
Klaus Muller, Historian. German historian involved in the making and
research of the documentary Paragraph 175. Site with interesting achieves.
aerial pictures of Auschwitz
Translation of Paragraph 175, 175a, and 175b in full
Site with hundreds of images and writings about the Holocaust.
Largely inaccurate site about the gay victims of the holocaust, but
with good intentions.
Glossary of language and terms used in the concentration camps.